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Saturday, August 18, 2012

A History of Native American Genocide by the New American Colonists

A History of Native American Genocide by the New American Colonists If history is known to be repetitive, then we as Americans must eagerly pursue lessons from the past for the advanced treatment of human rights and responsibilities. One of these lessons is the dehumanizing rivalry of a new America against the original Native America Archives, California State. Learn California.org . Web. n.d. 18 July 2012 < http://www.learncalifornia.org/doc.asp?id =1933> This is an article discussing the racial tensions and demeanor of the public during the Gold Rush era, particularly toward minorities. It describes other ethnicities that were being targeted along with the Native Americans. During the current gold rush trend the website looks at the steady decline of the lands, whole groups of people, and the treatment of minorities during those times. Looking at the nature of the fervor to push for wealth and prominence is what this article’s message confirms. It was unchecked aggression that has us look back at what may be described as more savage than their enemy the Native American. There is more reason to suspect that with prejudice, there was more imagery relayed to the public of the brutal savagery of the Native Indians; those acts indeed became more the acts of war for trespass and survival, than the means for the Native to act out their aggressions on any unfounded claims. More, along the line of this article, is the nature of the unknown value to the Native Tribes, which became of extreme value to the New Colonist- The drive for gold and the possession of tracts of land, fencing, and roadways were being blasted for the purpose and advancement of wealth and industry. Capps, Benjamin et al. “The Great Chiefs.” Ed. George Constable. Print. New York: Time Life Books, 1975. 15-43. This is one detailed account of the land of the Kiowas. Benjamin Capps a typical governing body many Indian tribes had to comply with, which wasn’t the way modern day adventures and settlers had portrayed them. Capps also shows the nature of the original Native Tribes paralleling our human instinct to anguish, bitterness, and survival. Seeing the arrangements that many Tribes had to conform with was much like seeing settings of our own lives and rules. With the story of White Bear, we can visualize the Native American Indians as humans, with feeling and values. The Kiowas example of Native wars were more Endemic, which were more tribal rivalries of looting and pillaging that took place for necessity than, the way the Colonists were using all out massive retaliatory pursuit and destruction, relentlessly impacting the routine of the Indians. The public sometimes glamorized stories which became more repetitive and horrific, which made the ideals of the public more unfavorable to the Natives- dubbing them as savages. Taking this lesson to our hearts will tell us to look more further to our own nature as human, and the feeling of others, rather than parroting popular opinion. This story also excludes any arguable remarks, from the public point of view, as to many original Native American Indians’ as being savage, unorganized, uncooperative, or sinister at best intentions. Danzinger, Edward Jr. “United States Indian Policy During the Late Nineteenth Century: Change and Continuity.” Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center.Web. n.d. 18 July 2012 Edward Danzinger makes comments on the Indian policies enacted by government officials and remarks about the way that some corrupt officials were antagonizing the Indians’ toward the fulfillment of the rising demands for promised bargains and arrangements. The article offers an explanation for expectations that were needed by both sides, where neither party was making any progress to resolve bitter issues. Bureaucratic means and functions were being installed to support the Americanization of the Natives. Many Commissioners were hired to Indian Reservation post to perform normal rationing functions; but with the corruption of many of the operators, raids by rouge Indian Tribes that were still being driven north or killed, and less grazing lands and game that were fashioned to near extinction. It is noteworthy to conceive of more intense hostilities and prejudice that existed between the two warring parties. Commissioner of Affairs John Q. Smith’s said the “civilization or the utter destruction of the Indians [as] inevitable.” It is also noteworthy to look at the offer for involuntary servitude as being the only choice for the Natives. As Smith said, unless they are “ taught, and taught very soon, to accept the necessities of their situation and being in earnest to provide for their own wants by labor in civilized pursuits. ” If we look to this piece of History then this would be sort of a bully statement by the better standards we should seek to accomplish. d’Errico, Peter. “Jeffery Amherst and the Smallpox Blankets.” www.nativeweb.org Web. n.d. 22 July 2012 Author Peter d’Errico brings forth stunning evidence on his website, with original photographs of correspondence between Cornel Henry Bouquet to General [James] Amherst; and Amherst’s response to George Crogan Deputy Agent of Indian Affairs between June –August 1763. The language within the letters- the idea of providing small pox ridden blankets, with the fluidity of the messages- the author is showing the growing intent and influence that perpetuated the Genocide of the Native American Indians. Visualizing these letters are important. It is safe to assume the general growing attitude that will increase between a heavily backed, industrialized nation that would use any means for resistance to enemies. Because of war trends during the war of Independence- another war would take place between successive nations with the beginning of another new problem- the next rise of the two rivalries- The New America and the Native American Indians. The question of whether the Indians were actually inoculated by orders from General Amherst troops is still under debate. But at the time, there was reason to suspect that many early settlers and pioneers began to feel accustom to the idea of distancing the natives further out of prime locations. Knowing this also gives us a reflection against using any illogical means toward human destruction. Drake, James D. “Native American Wars” The Oxford Companion to American Military History. John Whiteclay Chambers II, ed., Oxford University Press 1999. Print. Oxford Reference Online. The Oxford Companion to American Military History gives great summary of many topics related to the timeline of the native Indians struggle by means of progress for the New United States. We can point to references, with the expansion of territories, the migration of early prospectors, and the convening of military strength to ultimately pursue control over the native population, this reference is a good source for locking in small summaries in history of the Native American Indian wars. James Drake can only summarize the cause and effect of poignant places and events that were crucial to military warfare upon the Native Americans. These accounts can remind us of the intent for this Nation to satisfy and deliver the concept of progress without cause and effect. It also gives us a reflection of the reasoning for continuous bitter rivalry by scoping interest to the way of desire against nature. The Native American Indians were simply at their own place at the wrong time; and anywhere that progress led them, it was to their ultimate end. With this reference we can see more of an accounting of the gradual decline of the population of the natives. Foundation, Hermitage The. The Hermitage Foundation-President Andrew Jackson. Web.n.d. 18 July 2012. The Hermitage Foundation makes comments about the action of President Andrew Jackson’s Indian problem. With much to be said for the protection of the American way of life, Jackson takes on the responsibility to fight opposition groups against his removal policies, which was to dispatch government relations with treaties towards the Indians removal from their normal way of life. The attitude of the Native American Indians was growing toward debate upon their quick removal. This article serves the purpose in being reminded by how much influence can have to applying the power to make definitive and lasting changes. This site tells us corruption was above the knowledge of the President, and one must argue that there was a failure to the assimilation for Americanizing the Indians; and there was forethought to their extermination. The cause and affect must be considered by higher thinking logical debate, but when there was a new government that was facing changes as fast as the industry that was bringing about these changes, there would also be some advantages and liberty’s taken; which was almost everything at the time, that can be worked out for the cause of this advancement. Government Printing, United States office of. “ Thirteenth Amendment” – Slavery and Involuntary Servitude” United States Government Printing office. Web. n.d. 22 July 2012 < http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-CONAN-1992/pdf/GPO-CONAN-1992-10-14.pdf> This is a web site describing the definitions of the term “involuntary servitude” by the Office of Government Printing. It makes claims about the terms and scope of the Thirteenth Amendment with regard to slavery and involuntary servitude, as being an entitlement for all Americans. It also makes distinguishing remarks by what the terms of the Thirteenth Amendment would include. It is important to learn of the term, once again of, “involuntary servitude.” as not just act of brutal slavery. Some may also argue that this is an outdated law which restricted its use to the African American population and freedom for slaves. But this document makes clear a much wider scope of free liberties for all Americans: “And when racial discrimination herds men into ghettos and makes their ability to buy property turn on the color of their skin, then it too is a relic of slavery. At the very least, the freedom that Congress is empowered to secure under the Thirteenth Amendment includes the freedom to buy whatever a white man can buy, the right to live wherever a white man can live.” Teaching these ideas now makes sense when we can include all human as ourselves, without any preclusions of race or gender. But at the same time the latter quote was being considered in congress, there was active aggression against the Native American Indians and there wasn’t any mention of their civility being breached by these laws. We always have to take a look at similar circumstances for our times, and act according to higher humane standards. Lewy, Guenter. “Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide?” George Mason’s University History News Network.Web. n.d. 18 July 2012 Guenter Lewy argues in detail against calling the act of the New American Colonist “genocide”, but refers to the ethnic cleansing as being an act of “good intentions.” At the same time while offering some more details of acceptable practices of the times during the Colonist’s and the Natives, Lewy insists, in summary, that it would serve no interest to society to re-live the tragic moments in Native American History. Lewy fails to provide explanations or theories if he were to place himself in the situation of the vivid accounts that history has provided about the gradual decline of the Indian population. The author continues to compare the holocaust of the Jews as an act of Genocide; some scholars would make the argument about the occupation of Vietnam as an act of Genocide, but, his commentary still compares the population decline of the Native American Indian as a necessary means for the New America, and its interest. The interest of the colonist were leaving an indelible impression on the Native lands, yet knowing how there are opposing arguments on this informative review, there still remained the left over ideals of the Original Native American Indians being a less superior race by means of military aggression, and the ethnic cleansing and “Americanization” left them to their own cause and effect towards involuntary servitude to the New America, or total extinction. Knowing opposing viewpoint this article asserts very fluently, can help us steer people toward more humane reasoning.